Some of the more common heart valve diseases include: degenerative disease that can cause mitral valve prolapse, rheumatic disease that can lead to valve stenosis, infections that lead to the creation of holes in the valve causing them to become incompetent, and congenitally abnormal valves.
Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair - (MitraClip/E-Clips)
Percutaneous mitral valve repair treatments such as balloon valvuloplasty is used to treat mitral valve regurgitation and stenosis. This treatment for mitral valve stenosis has yielded excellent success rates in patients over the many years, and has become available only recently for mitral valve regurgitation.
Watch a video about the MitraClip procedure, a minimally invasive treatment for mitral regurgitation.
Mitral Valve Repair
In some cases, surgery on the malfunctioning valve can help alleviate symptoms. Examples of heart valve repair surgery include cutting scarred flaps so they open more easily; remodeling valve tissue that has enlarged; or inserting prosthetic rings to help narrow a dilated valve. In many cases, heart valve repair is preferable, because a person's own tissues are used.
Mitral Valve Replacement
When heart valves are severely malformed or destroyed, they may need to be replaced with a new mechanism. Replacement valve mechanisms fall into two categories: tissue (biologic) valves, which include animal valves and donated human aortic valves, and mechanical valves, which can be metal, plastic, or another artificial material.